Technical specification

v 1.17, 23.11.2023

1 Overview

This document describes the technical characteristics of the TARA authentication service and includes advice for interfacing the client application with e-services.

The TARA authentication service is a service provided by the Information System Authority of the Republic of Estonia which can be used by institutions to add the support of various different authentication methods to its e-service:

This technical specification is targeted for mainly software developers. The reader should be familiar with the HTTP protocol. Experiences with OpenID Connect or OAuth 2.0 would be beneficial but are not necessary. The reader should be prepared to obtain further information from the original text of the OpenID Connect protocol, if necessary.

We have attempted to use uniform terminology throughout the technical specification. Definitions can be found from the vocabulary and references. It should be kept in mind that the systems of concepts of OpenID Connect, OAuth 2.0, etc. have not been perfectly homogenised. For example, the information system of the institution offering an e-service which is interfaced with TARA is referred to as ‘the client application’ in this document. In OAuth and some other contexts, however, the client application is referred to as ‘the service provider’.

1.1 OpenID Connect

The TARA authentication service is based on the OpenID Connect protocol (References, [Core]), which is in turn based on the OAuth 2.0 protocol. OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.0 are extensive standards with numerous possibilities.

For TARA, limited subset from standards was chosen and some adjustments were made. The main selections and adjustments compared to the full OpenID Connect protocol are the following:

Based on feedback of users the TARA functionality may expand.

1.2 National and cross-border authentication

TARA enables national as well as cross-border authentication. This means that users of the Estonian e-identification system (ID-card, Mobile-ID, etc.) as well as users of the e-identification systems of other EU member states can be authenticated.

In the context of eIDAS, TARA is providing the ‘Authentication of an Estonian in an Estonian e-service’ and the ‘Authentication of a foreigner using an Estonian e-service’ application flows (Figure 1). When using TARA to authenticate foreigners, it is possible to skip TARA‘s user interface and direct the client straight to the foreign state‘s authentication system.

Figure 1. National and cross-border authentication

2 Authentication process from the user’s perspective

1 The user uses a client application providing an e-service

2 The client application redirects the user to the TARA service (by browser redirection)

3 The authentication method selection screen is displayed to the user. Here, the user can:

4 ID-card authentication

5 Mobile-ID authentication

6 Smart-ID authentication

7 EU eID (cross-border) authentication

NB! For EU eID authentication, it is possible to choose the target country in the interfaced client and specify it in the authentication request. This will allow the user to skip TARA user interface and be directed to the specified country’s authentication service. If the authentication was successful and the means of authentication has a sufficient level of assurance, move to step 8.

8 Authenticated user

9 From the error message screen:

10 The user can also:

3 Authentication flow from the technical perspective

Detailed description of the communication between the browser, the server component of the client application, and the server component of TARA.

These three parties communicate by HTTP requests and responses.

The main requests and the responses thereto are discussed (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Authentication request

The flow begins from the browser. A page is loaded from the client application to the browser, where the user choose click ‘Log in’ or start the authentication process in another manner.

After the user selects ‘Log in’, the browser sends an HTTP request 1a to the client application (to the server component of the client application). The client application may also launch the authentication process autonomously, as a result of some other operation performed by the user.

The client application creates an authentication request. The composition of the authentication request is described in a separate section below. The client application sends a response body 1b to the browser. The response body includes the HTTP redirection and the authentication request.

The browser completes the redirection by excerpting the authentication request from response body 1b and sending it to the server component of TARA as 2a request.

Having received an authentication request 2a, the server component of TARA generates the page of authentication methods and transfers it to the browser as response body 2b.

The page of authentication methods is displayed to the user. The flow is described further in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Redirect request

The user chooses an authentication method. The selection is transferred to the server component of TARA by an HTTP request 3a.

This is followed by an authentication dialogue based on the authentication method selected by the user. In the authentication dialogue, several messages may be exchanged between the browser and the server component of TARA and several redirections may be completed. For example, in the case of cross-border authentication, the user is redirected several times to reach an authentication service of a foreign country. These requests and responses are referred to as “…” in the Figure.

The authentication dialogue terminates and the user must be redirected back to the client application.

The server component of TARA sends an HTTP response body 3b to the browser which includes a redirection order for redirecting the user to the client application.

The browser completes the redirection order 3b by sending an HTTP request 4a to the server component of the client application (redirect request).

If the authentication was successful authorization code is returned with the request. The redirect request is described in detail in a separate section below.

An authorisation code is used to retrieve the identification code, name and other personal data by sending a separate request to the server component of TARA (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Identity token request

The server component of the client application sends an identity token request 5a to the server component of TARA. In the identity token request, the client application provides the authorisation code received in the redirect request. The client application proves its authenticity by adding a client secret code to the request. The identity token request is a backend request that is not sent through the browser.

Having received an identity token 5a, the server component of TARA verifies the client secret code and issues the identity token 5b in the response. The identity token includes information about the fact of authentication (time of authentication, authentication method) and about the person identified (personal identification code, first name and surname; in the case of cross-border authentication, also date of birth and other data). The server component of TARA signs the identity token. The identity token is described in detail in a separate section below.

The client application receives the identity token 5b. In order to prevent attacks, the client application must verify whether the identity token was actually issued by TARA, intended for the client application, and not expired.

Thereby, the authentication is completed. The user has now been identified in the client application.

In most cases, the client application then launches a session with the user. Launching a session is not included in the scope of TARA.

The client application sends an HTTP response 4b to the browser, such as the ‘Logged in’ page.

4 Requests

4.1 Authentication request

An authentication request is an HTTP GET request by which the user is redirected from the client application to TARA for authentication.

An example of an authentication request (for better readability, the query component of the URL was divided over several lines):


Elements of an authentication request:

URL element compulsory example explanation
protocol, host, and patch yes /authorize is the OpenID Connect-based authentication endpoint of the TARA service (the concept of ‘authorisation’ originates from the OAuth 2.0 standard protocol).
redirect_uri yes redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2F Redirect URL. The redirect URL is selected by the institution. The redirect URL may include the query component.

URL encoding should be used, if necessary.

It is not permitted to use the URI fragment component (# and the following component).
scope yes scope=openid


The authentication scope.

openid is compulsory (required by the OpenID Connect protocol).

The scopes of idcard, mid, smartid, eidas (and eidasonly) can be used to request that only the desired method of authentication is displayed to the user. See 4.1.4 Selective use of authentication methods.

The email scope can be used to request that the user’s e-mail address is issued in the identity token. See 4.1.2 Requesting e-mail address.

In case of cross-border authentication, further scopes can be used to either specify the foreign country and direct the user to its authentication service or to request additional personal data (see 4.1.4 and 4.1.1).

When using several scopes, the scopes must be separated by spaces. Thereat, the space is presented in the URL encoding (%20) (RFC 3986). Scope values are case sensitive. Only scope values described in current document are allowed, other values cause an error with code invalid_scope to be returned.
state yes state=hkMVY7vjuN7xyLl5 Security code against false request attacks (cross-site request forgery, CSRF). Read more about formation and verification of state under ‘Protection against false request attacks.
response_type yes response_type=code Determines the manner of communication of the authentication result to the server. The method of authorisation code is supported (authorization flow of the OpenID Connect protocol) and it is referred to the code value.
client_id yes client_id=58e7... Application identifier. The application identifier is issued to the institution by RIA upon registration of the client application as a user of the authentication service.
ui_locales no ui_locales=et Selection of the user interface language. The following languages are supported: et, en, ru.
nonce no fsdsfwrerhtry3qeewq A unique parameter which helps to prevent replay attacks based on the protocol (References, [Core], subsection Authentication Request). The nonce parameter is not compulsory.
acr_values no acr_values=high The minimum required level of authentication based on the eIDAS LoA (read more about eIDAS level-of-assurance). It is permitted to apply only one of the following values: low, substantial, high . substantial is used by default if the value has not been specified.

TARA will only display authentication methods which have an equal or higher LoA compared to the value of acr_values in the authentication request. For cross-border authentication, the value is forwarded to the foreign country’s eIDAS authentication service.

On the interfaced client side, it must be verified that the authentication level in the acr claim of an identity token is not lower than the minimum allowed level-of-assurance.

4.1.1 Requesting attributes about foreigners

In case of authentication of a foreigner, the foreigner is redirected by TARA to the authentication service of their country.

By a regulation of the European Commission, member states have agreed that another country’s authentication service must always issue four attributes of a natural person: 1) first name; 2) surname; 3) date of birth; 4) personal identification code or another identifier.

In case of natural person authentication, TARA always returns the compulsory attributes: first name, surname, date of birth and personal identifier.

At the moment, TARA does not support requesting additional attributes nor authenticating legal persons.

4.1.2 Requesting e-mail address

The email scope can be used to request the user’s e-mail address in the identity token. This option is targeted for the client applications that require verification of an e-mail address in authentication of a user. The email scope must be added to the main scope openid. The claims email and email_verified are issued in the identity token. For example:

"sub": "EE60001019906",
"email": "",
"email_verified": false

The email value is read from an extension of the user’s authentication certificate (from the RFC822 type Subject Alternative Name field). The e-mail address is only issued if the user is authenticated by an Estonian ID-card. The client application must take into consideration that the user may not have redirected their e-mail, i.e. an e-mail sent to this address may not reach the user.

The email_verified is always false. It means that TARA does not verify or issue information on whether the user has redirected their e-mail address. (The respective functionality may be added in the future).

4.1.3 Requesting phone number

The phone scope can be used to request the user’s phone number in the identity token. This option is targeted for client applications that use Mobile-ID, which requires user’s phone number as input, as a means for giving digital signatures. The phone scope must be added to the main scope openid. The claims phone and phone_number_verified are issued in the identity token. For example:

"sub": "EE60001019906",
"phone_number": "+37200000766",
"phone_number_verified": true

The value of phone_number claim is in E.164 format and prefixed by a country code.

The value of phone_number_verified claim is always true. This means that the ownership of the phone number has been verified during the authentication process, i.e. the phone number belongs to the authenticating user.

The claims phone_number and phone_number_verified can only be issued if Mobile-ID was used for authentication.

4.1.4 Selective use of means of authentication

By default, all supported authentication methods are displayed to the user. If necessary, the authentication options displayed can be managed by using the scope parameter’s value. Preferred authentication methods can be combined to draw up a list of the authentication methods (the list of permitted values is provided in Table 1).

When using the selective means of authentication the validation of amr claim must be performed in the identity token as an additional security method.

Table 1 – displaying the authentication methods

Value of the scope parameter Explanation
idcard Allowing Estonian ID-card authentication
mid Allowing Mobile-ID authentication
smartid Allowing Smart-ID authentication
eidas Allowing cross-border (eIDAS) authentication
eidasonly Allowing ONLY cross-border (eIDAS) authentication

NB! When eidasonly is used, all other preferred authentication methods will be always excluded.
eidas:country:xx Selects defined country for cross-border (eIDAS) authentication (skips the TARA country selection page). Can only be used together with eidasonly scope. Supported country codes can be retrieved from discovery endpoint.

Example 1: All means of authentication scope=openid

Example 2: Only ID-card and Mobile-ID scope=openid%20idcard%20mid

Example 3: Only cross-border authentication scope=openid%20eidas

Example 4: Cross-border (eIDAS) authentication without TARA country selection page. The country is selected by client application. scope=openid%20eidasonly%20eidas%3Acountry%3Abe

4.2 Redirect request

The redirect request is an HTTP GET request which is used to redirect the user back from TARA to the client application.

The user is redirected to the return address included in the authentication request sent by the client application. In the redirect request, an authorization code is sent to the client application by TARA, based on which the client application will (by a separate request) request from TARA the personal identification code, name, and other attributes of the authenticated person. Technically, an HTTP redirect request is used for redirecting.

An example of a redirect request:


Elements of a redirect request:

URL element example description
protocol, host, and path Matches the redirect_uri value sent in the authentication request.
code code=71ed579... The authorisation code is a single ‘permission note’ to receive the identity token.
state state=OFfVLKu0kNbJ2EZk Security code against false request attacks. The security code received in the authentication request is mirrored back. Read more about forming and verifying state from ‘Protection against false request attacks’.

Request might contain other URL parameters, that client application must ignore.

Error message in the redirect request. If TARA is unable to process an authentication request – there is an error in the request, another error has occurred or user canceled the process – TARA transfers an error message (URL parameter error) and the description of the error (URL parameter error_description) in the redirect request.

If a user cancels authentication in TARA (’Return to service provider’ link on TARA’s front page), a user_cancel error message is returned.

For other cases, TARA relies on the OpenID Connect standard on error messages (more information regarding the error messages can be found from and The error messages are always displayed in English.

state is also redirected but no authorisation code (code) is sent. E.g.:


The redirect request errors are normally resulted by a misconfiguration; therefore the error description in parameter error_description is not needed to be displayed for the user directly. The client application should check whether an error message was sent.

Termination of the authentication process. The user may also return to the e-service without choosing an authentication method and completing the authentication process (via ‘Return to service provider’ link). This option is provided for the cases in which the user has clicked ‘Log in’ in the client application but does not actually wish to log in.

Terminating the authentication process will redirect the user back to the client with error message user_cancel1.

1 Beginning from August 2020, Information System Authority does not require a separate redirect URL for terminated authentications (a URL for redirects after user has chosen ‘Return to service provider’ option). NB! The OpenID Connect protocol-based redirect URL and the URL described here have different meanings.

4.3 Identity token request

The identity token request is an HTTP POST request which is used by the client application to request the identity token from the server of TARA.

An example of an identity token request (for better readability, the body of the HTTP POST request is divided over several lines):

POST /oidc/token HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Authorization: Basic czZCaGRSa3F0MzpnWDFmQmF0M2JW


The client secret code must be provided in the identity token request. For this purpose, the request must include the Authorization request header with the value formed of the word Basic, a space, and a string <client_id>:<client_secret> encoded in the Base64 format (see RFC 2617 HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication, Section 2 Basic Authentication Scheme).

The body of the HTTP POST request must be presented in a serialised format based on the OpenID Connect protocol.

The body of the request must include the following parameters:

POST request body element example explanation
protocol, host, and path  
grant_type grant_type=authorization_code The authorization_code value required based on the protocol.
code code=Splx... The authorization code received from the authentication service.
redirect_uri redirect_uri=https%3A%2F The redirect URL sent in the authorisation request.

4.3.1 Identity token

TARA server verifies that the identity token is requested by the right application and issues the identity token included in the response body (HTTP response body).

The response body uses JSON format consisting four elements (see the following table).

element explanation
access_token OAuth 2.0 access certificate. With identity token the client application can issue authenticated user’s data from userinfo endpoint.

Even though TARA issues the access token, we only advise to use it (to receive the authenticated user’s data from the userinfo endpoint) in case it is not possible to use the identity token (e.g when interfacing out-of-the-box products). All the data of authenticated user are already issued within the identity token. Using the identity is recommended and, in theory, is considered to be more secure (as the identity token is signed, while the userinfo endpoint is not).
token_type OAuth 2.0 access token type with bearer value. Not used in TARA
expires_in The validity period of the OAuth 2.0 access token. Not used in TARA.
id_token Identity token. Presented in JWS Compact Serialization form.

Response body might contain other fields, that client application must ignore.

The identity token is a certificate of the fact of authentication issued by TARA.

The identity token is issued in JSON Web Token, JWT format.

The identity token is always signed.

An example:

  "jti": "0c597356-3771-4315-a129-c7bc1f02a1b2",
  "iss": "",
  "aud": "TARA-Demo",
  "exp": 1530295852,
  "iat": 1530267052,
  "nbf": 1530266752,
  "sub": "EE60001019906",
  "profile_attributes": {
    "date_of_birth": "2000-01-01",
    "family_name": "O’CONNEŽ-ŠUSLIK TESTNUMBER",
    "given_name": "MARY ÄNN"
  "amr": [
  "state": "1OnH3qwltWy81fKqcmjYTqnco9yVQ2gGZXws/DBLNvQ=",
  "nonce": "",
  "at_hash": "X0MVjwrmMQs/IBzfU2osvw=="

The following claims are presented in the identity token:

identity token element (claim) example of a value, explanation
jti (JSON Token Identifier) 0c597356... - identity token identifier
iss (Issuer) - issuer of the certificate (TARA); in the case of test services
aud (Audience) TARA-Demo - the ID of a client application that requested authentication (the value of client_id field is specified upon directing the user to the authentication process).
exp (Expires) 1530295852 - the expiration time of the certificate (in Unix epoch format).
iat (Issued At) 1530267052 - the time of issue of the certificate (in Unix epoch format).
nbf (Not Before) 1530266752 - the validity start time of the certificate (in Unix epoch format).
sub (Subject) EE60001019906 - the identifier of the authenticated user (personal identification code or eIDAS identifier) with the prefix of the country code of the citizen (country codes based on the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 standard). NB! eIDAS identifier length may be a maximum of 256 characters.
profile_attributes the data of the authenticated user, including the eIDAS attributes
2000-01-01 - the date of birth of the authenticated user in the ISO_8601 format. Only sent in the case of persons with Estonian personal identification code and in the case of eIDAS authentication.
MARY ÄNN - the first name of the authenticated user (the test name was chosen because it consists special characters).
O’CONNEŽ-ŠUSLIK - the surname of the authenticated user (the test name was selected because it includes special characters).
Includes a JSON object consisting of profile attributes in the Latin alphabet (see the section on transliteration below). The value is present only in the case of eIDAS authentication.
amr (Authentication Method Reference) mID - the authentication method used for user authentication. Possible values: mID - Mobile-ID, idcard - Estonian ID-card, eIDAS - cross-border, smartid - Smart-ID
state abcdefghijklmnop - security element. The authentication request’s state parameter value.
nonce qrstuvwxyzabcdef - security element. The authentication request’s nonce parameter value. Value is present only in case the nonce parameter was sent in the authentication request.
acr (Authentication Context Class Reference) high - level of authentication based on the eIDAS LoA (level of assurance). Possible values: low, substantial, high. The element is not used if the level of authentication is not applicable or is unknown.
at_hash X0MVjwrmMQs/IBzfU2osvw== - the access token hash. Not used in TARA.
email - the user’s e-mail address. Only issued if an Estonian ID-card is used for authenticating the user. Is only read from the SAN extension of the user’s authentication certificate (from the RFC822 type Subject Alternative Name field)
email_verified false - the e-mail address of the user has been verified. TARA always issues a value false. It means that TARA does not verify or issue information on whether or not the user has redirected his/her e-mail address.
phone_number +37200000766 - the user’s phone number. Issued only when authenticating with Estonian Mobile-ID service. The phone number is presented in E.164 format and prefixed by a country code.
phone_number_verified true - the ownership of the phone number to the authenticating user has been confirmed. If the claim is present, then it is always true

Identity token might consist of other OpenID Connect protocol based fields that are not supported in TARA.

The client application must obtain the identity token immediately or within 30 seconds (before the expiry time of the identity token).

4.4 User info request

User info request enables requesting information about an authenticated user based on a valid OAuth 2.0 access token. The request must be done by using the HTTP GET method.

The access token must be presented to the user info endpoint in the HTTP header or by using the Bearer Token method or as a URLi parameter.

Example 1 – transferring an access certificate in the Authorization header:

GET /oidc/profile HTTP/1.1
Authorization: Bearer AT-20-qWuioSEtFhYVdW89JJ4yWvtI5SaNWep0

Example 2 – transferring of access certificate as an access_token parameter:

GET /oidc/profile?access_token=AT-20-qWuioSEtFhYVdW89JJ4yWvtI5SaNWep0 HTTP/1.1

The valid access token response is provided in the JSON format. Example:

  "amr": [
  "date_of_birth": "2000-01-01",
  "family_name": "O’CONNEŽ-ŠUSLIK TESTNUMBER",
  "given_name": "MARY ÄNN",
  "sub": "EE60001019906",
  "auth_time": 1550735597

The claims included in the response are issued based on the identity token.

json element (claim) disclosure is compulsory explanation
auth_time yes The time of successful authentication of the user. In the Unix epoch format.
sub (Subject) yes The same format and meaning as sub in identity token.
given_name yes The same format and meaning as profile_attributes.given_name in identity token.
family_name yes The same format and meaning as profile_attributes.family_name in identity token.
amr yes The same format and meaning as amr in identity token.
date_of_birth no 1 The same format and meaning as profile_attributes.date_of_birth in identity token.
email no 1 The same format and meaning as email in identity token.
email_verified no 1 The same format and meaning as email_verified in identity token.
phone_number no 1 The same format and meaning as phone_number in identity token.
phone_number_verified no 1 The same format and meaning as phone_number_verified in identity token.
acr no 1 The same format and meaning as acr in identity token.

1 Only issued if the claim is also included in the identity token.

Response body might contain other fields, that client application must ignore.

Error handling

In case the access token presented to the user information endpoint is missing or is expired, an error code and a brief description about the error are returned as WWW-Authenticate header according to the OpenID Connect Core 1.0 spetsifikatsioonile.

An example:

HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
WWW-Authenticate: Bearer error="invalid_token",error_description="The access token has expired"

5 Security operations

5.1 Verification of the identity token

The client application must always verify the identity token. The client application must implement all the verifications based on OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.0 protocols.

The verification must verify identity token’s:

For more detailed information about the identity token verifications can be found from OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.0 protocol specifications.

5.1.1 Verifying the signature

The identity token is signed by the TARA authentication service. The signature meets the JWT standard.

TARA uses the RS256 signature algorithm. The client application must, at least, be able to verify the signature given by using this algorithm. It would be reasonable to use a standard JWT library which supports all JWT algorithms. The change of algorithm is considered unlikely, but possible in case a security vulnerability is detected in the RS256.

For the signature verification, the public signature key of TARA must be used. The public signature key is published at the public signature key endpoint.

The public signature key is stable - the public signature key will be changed according to security recommendations. However, the key can be changed without prior notice for security reasons. The key change process is described in a separate chapter.

The public signature key has an identifier (kid). The key identifier is aligned with the best practices of OpenID Connect and OAuth 2.0 that enables the key exchange without the service interruption.

TARA issues kid field in the response of the request of identity token (JWT header element kid). kid refers to the key that the client application has to use for the verification of a signature.

We recommend to buffer the signature key (together with kid value) in order to decrease the amount of requests made to TARA server. However, it is allowed to request the key on each validation.

For signature validation the following checks need to be performed on the client application:

1 - Read the kid value from the JWT header.

2.1 - If the client application does not buffer the public key, make a request to the public signature key endpoint and select the key corresponding to the kid value received from the JWT header.

2.2 - If the client application buffers the public key (it needs to be buffered together with the kid value), it needs to compare the kid value from the JWT header with the buffered kid value. If they match, the buffered key can be used. If not, the client application needs to make a request to the public signature key endpoint and select the key corresponding to the kid value received from the JWT header and buffer it together with the corresponding kid value. Alternatively, the client application can buffer all the published keys from the public signature key endpoint together with kid values and during validation select the matching key from the buffer. However, in that case, the buffer should have an expiration time. Recommended buffer expiration should be between 5 minutes to 24 hours.

3 - Validate the signature using the key corresponding to the kid value from the JWT header.

NB! “Hardcoding” the key to client application configuration must be avoided. The key change will be typically communicated (except of urgent security reasons), but manual key handling will result downtime in client application for the period when TARA is already using the new key until the new key is taken use in client application.

5.1.2 Verifying the TLS connection to endpoints

When making requests from the client application to TARA (to all endpoints, i.e., server discovery endpoint, public signature key endpoint, token endpoint), all necessary checks must be correctly performed during the initiation of the TLS connection. It is recommended not to implement these checks yourself, but to use a library with HTTPS or TLS connection functionality.

The trust anchor for the TLS connection in the client application must be set to the DigiCert Global Root G2 root certificate only. It is not advisable to trust certificates from other CAs or the entire operating system’s CA certificate store. Web browsers trust many CA certificates, but they use the Certificate Transparency mechanism to mitigate the unauthorized certificate issuance problem. TARA authentication flow is a combination of web browser requests and client application requests, therefore the union of checks from both applies for the authentication flow to completely succeed. Compared to trusting an end-entity certificate, trusting a CA root certificate has a greater risk of connecting to the wrong endpoint (if an external party succeeds in performing an unauthorized certificate issuance attack in organizations connected to this CA trust chain and network traffic man-in-the-middle attack between the client application and TARA). We consider this risk acceptable, but each integrator may form their own assessment and set TLS connection trust anchor to the TARA end-entity certificate (* instead of CA root certificate (DigiCert Global Root G2) if needed, but must take into account that the latter changes more often (at least every year).

The HTTPS or TLS connection functionality library must perform the following checks for each connection initiation:

Additionally, revocation of all certificates in the chain must be observed in any of the following ways:

5.1.3 Verifying the issuer of the certificate

The iss value of the identity token element must be (for TARA test environment) or (for TARA production environment).

5.1.4 Verifying the addressee of the certificate

The client application must verify whether the certificate received was issued for them. For this purpose, it must be made sure that the aud value of the identity token element matches the client ID issued upon registration of the client application.

5.1.5 Verifying the validity of the certificate

The verification is done using three elements in the identity token: iat, nbf, exp. The client application uses its own clock to verify the validity. The following details should be verified:

1) that “not before” time has reached:

nbf <= jooksev_aeg + kellade_lubatud_erinevus (current time + permitted difference between clocks).

2) that the “expired” time has not been reached:

exp > jooksev_aeg - kellade_lubatud_erinevus (current time - permitted difference between clocks).

The application must choose the kellade_lubatud_erinevus value. These checks are required for preventing attacks and confusion.

The identity token must be obtained immediately or within 30 seconds. When the time limit is exceeded, the identity token will not be issued.

5.1.6 Verifying the authentication method used in authentication

When using the selective means of authentication (see section 4.1.4) the identity token must verify that the authentication method provided by the authentication method reference, amr ,is allowed. Otherwise, the risk of intermediary attacks is taken by allowing the user to authenticate through the method that is not acceptable in the interface (e.g. Smart-ID is used instead of authentication with an ID-card) through manipulation of the authentication request scope parameter.

For example, when in the authentication request the scope parameter is defined to use only ID-card authentication method, it must be verified that the amr claim also contains an idcard code (the full list of all codes is described under section 4.3.1).

5.1.7 Verifying the eIDAS level of assurance

In order to prevent access with authentication tools with a lower security level, it must be verified that the authentication level in the acr claim of identity token is not lower than the minimum level of assurance allowed.

For example, if the client application wants to use only authentication methods with eIDAS level of assurance high and has specified the value in the acr_values parameter, then only the identity tokens with acr_values parameter with value high can be accepted.

In case the level of assurance in the authentication request using acr_values parameter is not specified, the identity token must be equal to a level of assurance substantial or high.

5.1.8 Creating a session

After a successful verification of the identity token, the client application will create a session with the user (‘log in the user’). The client application is responsible for creating and holding the sessions. The methods for doing this are not included in the scope of the TARA authentication service.

5.2 Protection against false request attacks

The client application must implement protective measures against false request attacks (cross-site request forgery, CSRF). This can be achieved by using state and nonce security codes. Using state is compulsory; using nonce is optional. Using state with a cookie set on the client application side means that the client application itself does not have to remember the state parameter value. The process is described below.

The state security code is used to combat falsification of the redirect request following the authentication request. The client application must perform the following steps:

1 Generate a nonce word, for example of the length of 16 characters: XoD2LIie4KZRgmyc (referred to as R).

2 Calculate from the R nonce word the H = hash(R)hash, for example by using the SHA256 hash algorithm and by converting the result to the Base64 format: vCg0HahTdjiYZsI+yxsuhm/0BJNDgvVkT6BAFNU394A=.

3 Add an order to set a cookie for the client application domain with a value of R immediately before making the authentication request, for example:

Set-Cookie ETEENUS=XoD2LIie4KZRgmyc; HttpOnly,

where ETEENUS is a freely selected cookie name. The HttpOnly attribute must be applied to the cookie.

4 Set the following value, in the authentication request to TARA, for the state parameter calculated based on section 2:

GET ... state=vCg0HahTdjiYZsI+yxsuhm/0BJNDgvVkT6BAFNU394A=

Length of state parameter must be minimally 8 characters.

In the course of processing the redirect request, the client application must:

5 Take the ETEENUS value of the cookie received with the request (two user specific elements are sent with the redirect request: a nonce word as a cookie and the hash value calculated from the nonce word in the state parameter).

6 Calculate the hash based on the cookie value and encode it with base64.

7 Verify that the hash matches the state value mirrored back in the redirect request.

The redirect request may only be accepted if the checks described above is successful.

The key element of the process described above is connection of the state value with the session. This is achieved by using a cookie. (This is a temporary authentication session. The work session will be created by the client application after the successful completion of the authentication).

Further information: unfortunately, this topic is not presented clearly in the OpenID Connect protocol. Some information can be found from an unofficial document, OpenID Connect Basic Client Implementer’s Guide 1.0, section ‘ Request Parameters’.

5.3 Logging

Logging must enable the reconstruction of the course of the communication between TARA and the client application for each occasion of using TARA. For this purpose, all requests and responses must be logged by TARA as well as by the client application: authentication request, redirect request and identity token request. As the volumes of data transferred are not large, the URL as well as the identity token must be logged in full. The retention periods of the logs should be determined based on the importance of the client application. We advise using 1 … 7 years. In case of any issue, please submit an excerpt from the log (Which requests were sent to TARA? Which responses were received?).

5.4 ID token signing key change

The key change is carried out based on OpenID Connect standard.

RIA notifies contact persons of integrators by e-mail about identity token signing key change.

Until the notified date, TARA signs identity tokens with the key that is being used until then. From the notified date, TARA will start signing identity tokens with the new key, which will be added to public signature key endpoint by the time the first identity token is signed with it. Therefore, for some time, two public keys are visible at the public signature key endpoint at the same time, each with its own unique kid identifier. Example of publishing two keys:

   "keys": [
         "use": "sig",
         "kty": "RSA",
         "kid": "8b2c7561-fdf8-41d4-b466-ab323c3865c6",
         "alg": "RS256",
         "n": "sqEw...",
         "e": "AQAB"
         "use": "sig",
         "kty": "RSA",
         "kid": "1c5b7961-41d4-b468-a768-db523c3617f4",
         "alg": "RS256",
         "n": "y7XY...",
         "e": "AQAB"

The old public key will be removed from the public signature key endpoint after the last identity tokens signed with it have expired.

See also Verifying the signature chapter for information on how the public key must be used in signature validation.

6 eIDAS levels of assurance

As stated by eIDAS regulation, eIDAS level of assurance (LoA) is the level of reliability (high, substantial, low) assigned to a means of authentication under the implementing regulation (EL) 2015/1502. The LoA of a means of authentication is determined by several aspects: the basis of identity issuance, organizational processes, the technical solution and management of the solution.

Levels of assurance for domestic authentication methods used in TARA are approved by the Information System Authority according to eIDAS implementing regulation.

Means of authentication used in TARA have been assigned the following levels of assurance:

Means of authentication Level of assurance
ID-Card high
Mobile-ID high
Smart-ID high 1

1NB! The LoA applies only for persons with an Estonian identity code and a Smart-ID account. Interfacing party has to consider that non-residents (Estonian e-residents) are not distinguishable from residents.

Every member state assigns LoA’s to their own domestic means of authentication and notifies other member states of them according to eIDAS regulation. Please refer here for a list of all authentication methods that have been notified by member states.

7 Endpoints and timeouts

7.1 Test service

endpoint URL
server discovery
public signature key of the service
registration of the client application dynamic registration is not supported, static registration via

7.2 Production service

endpoint URL
server discovery
public signature key of the service
registration of the client application dynamic registration is not supported, static registration via

7.3 Timeouts

timeout value remark
TARA session 30 min TARA server creates a session with the user identified. If the user doesn’t perform any activity at TARA page, the session will expire in after 30 minutes. Note: TARA session must be distinguished from the session between the client application and the user.
SSL/TLS handshake 25 s In case of ID-card authentication. The user must enter PIN1 within 25 seconds. After the timeout, the authentication will be terminated for security reasons.
OAuth authorization code 30 s The client application must obtain the ID token using authorization code within 30 seconds.
ID token (and OAuth access token) 40 s The ID token includes the token expiry time. For security reasons, the validity period of the token is set to 40 seconds. The client application must not use the expired token. Note that ID token is not a proof of a session between the client application and the user.

8 Recommendations for interfacing with TARA

Interfacing with TARA is easy. Yet, the operations should be carefully planned and executed.

While performing the interfacing, special attention must be paid to ensure that all checks required based on the protocol are performed – checks of the state security element, as well as nonce security element, if used, the identity token verification, etc. See ID token validation [Core].

The process of interfacing is completed as follows:

The institution must determine whether and which of their e-services they would like to use TARA.

Then, the development required for using the service should be planned and executed – complementation of the client application with the OpenID Connect protocol-based client component, including testing. The estimated volume of the development: approx. two days for an experienced developer; if the developer has no previous experience with OpenID Connect, two weeks. The development should be planned based on the current technical specification

When the development is completed, the interface must be tested with the TARA test service. The representative of the institution must submit an application for subscribing to the test service. The application may be submitted before launching the development. In the application, the institution must state:

The application is submitted and any further communication in the course of administration of the service is conducted via the user support of RIA, Read more from the website of RIA authentication services.

RIA, having satisfied the application:

As a next step, the institution performs tests of its client application interface. See the testing guidelines.

Subscribing to the TARA production service. After successful testing, the institution submits an application for integration with the production version for the client application. The application must include the redirect-URL of the production version of the client application (redirect_uri) based on the OpenID Connect protocol and other information.

RIA, having satisfied the application, issues a password for the production version of the client application, client_secret and grants access to the production service for the production version of the client application.

9 Private sector client specifications

The interfacing process and authentication flows for private sector clients are identical with public sector clients.

Compared to public sector, private sector clients can explicitly only use the compulsory openid scope with cross-border eIDAS authentication scopes eidas, eidasonly, eidas:country:xx. Read also about the scope parameter in authentication request.

eidas:country:xx scope works only with eidasonly scope.

eidas:country:xx scope allows for interfaced clients to skip TARA’s user interface and direct the authentication flow straight to specified country’s authentication service.

In the test environment, more countries are displayed to private sector clients than in the production environment. Not all countries support private sector authentication.

Currently, the following countries are supported in the production environment for private sector client authentication:

Country Country code
Belgium BE
Portugal PT
Sweden SE

NB! Information System Authority does not guarantee the workability of other eIDAS member states’ authentication services. Private sector eIDAS authentication depends on other member states and may be subject to change.

Riigi Infosüsteemi Amet · 2017-2024 ·